Switching with transistors PNP and NPN (the basics)
Old video from my former channel Radioam232, approx 2008. How to use PNP and NPN transistors as a switch. Switch mode = saturating the base from the switch transistor or Darlington with enough voltage/current, so the issue is not difficult.Only problem: a too high base current immediately (!) damages the transistor (Ts 1 and/or TS 2) and there is no (...) indication from that damage. Only that ""it"" does not work.
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In thematical order you can find these video’s under the “comments” section. My books about electronics are available via the website from “Lulu”, search for author “Ko Tilman” there. My books are also available via Barnes and Noble and via Amazon. Regarding all my video’s: I constantly keep them actual, so the original video’s with the most recent information are always on YouTube. That is the source, and search there. When...